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Here at Resurrection Genetics we select and breed our genetics with the consumer in mind. We have a rigorous phenotype hunting program and use specialized lab testing to find the right genotypic characteristics we are looking for as well. We are a company that does not breed for ONLY high THC concentrations due to the fact of knowing that HIGH THC percentage does not mean HIGH POTENCY. If you are only breeding for high THC you are losing out and shortening the concentrations of other supporting cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. As experienced breeders we are finding that a lot of the amazing and great medicinal effects of some original cannabis strains are now being bred out of existence due to the push for only high THC cannabis hybrid strains. The main stream cannabis corporations are pushing high THC strains grown hydroponically with PGRs (Plant Growth Regulators) and trying to tell the public that it is safe and high thc is the WAY. Well we are here to tell you that they are wrong. As cannabis connoisseurs ourselves we all know how amazing some of these lost genetics were that were still very close to some of their original landrace ancestors. Landrace genetics must be saved to preserve some the amazing characteristics they produce both medicinally and physically. Landrace strains are the original cannabis strains that were grown in certain areas of the world for generations. These strains acclimated to the certain areas and produced cultivars with very strong resistances to certain pests, molds and weathers due to open pollination for years and years in the same area/fields. These strains also created many medicinal benefits due to the gene pool creating many different unique pheno/geno types. It is our goal at Resurrection Genetics to travel, hunt and collect these landrace seeds to help preserve these unique and powerful strains. We will also make crosses of different landraces for True F1 Hybrids and cross some landraces with other great cultivars and hybrids that have great properties we are seeking out. We want our clients to also help preserve these strains because they are valuable and disappearing. The more people we can have open pollinate some landraces and spread the seeds around the better. BRING BACK THE LANDRACES!
Landrace Cannabis Strains Of Latin America Are Latin American cannabis plants true landrace strains, or are they actually heirloom strains originating from African Sativa varieties, such as Angola Red? While it’s possible that African cannabis genetics lead to Latin American strains due to trade, travel, and the spread of civilization, no one is certain. It seems equally likely that these cannabis strains developed on their own for hundreds of years before humans began selectively breeding plants such as Colombian Gold and Panama Red. Further, while many consider Jamaican cannabis strains to be landrace rather than heirloom, based on research this author is fairly certain that Jamaican strains are in fact strains brought to the island and harvested there for generations, such that unique strains were developed with morphology ideal for the climate. Therefore, by definition, Jamaican strains are heirloom, not landrace, and will be included in the next blog post in this series. Sadly, most Latin American landrace cannabis strains are considered either extinct in the wild, or well on their way to extinction. From gangs wars to drug trafficking, the region has been ravaged for decades. At particular risk are the Mexican landrace cannabis strains. Luckily, there is a growing movement towards preserving rare cannabis genetics. Landrace Regions Mexican landrace strains were named by locals for their place of origin. With names such as Chiapan, Guerreran, Nayarit, Michoacan, Oaxacan, and Sinoalan, it’s clear that cannabis was grown along the Pacific coast in Mexican states from Northern Sinaloa through Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero and Oaxaca to Southern Chiapas. As we consider regions south of Mexico, such as Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, we come a tropical climate that allows for cannabis plants to thrive. Heading further south we come to the isthmus that connects North and South America. On one side is Panama and on the other side is Colombia. Both of these countries are famous for their landrace cannabis. Strains of the Atlantic coastal areas around Panama grew in low-lying, wetlands, such as Cauca and Narino. Landrace strains considered Colombian began in much a much harsher climate in the mountains of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta before eventually spreading to inland areas such as Meta. This is the point at which Colombian landrace strains were cultivated and selectively bred. Some popular landraces produced in this area include Colombian Gold, Cali Hills, Punto Rojo and Santa Marta Gold. Landrace Morphology As Central and South American countries share similar climates, this author has chosen to group the landrace strains of these regions into one group called “Latin America.” Truly, these plants not only share similar climates, but similar growing traits (morphology) and highs as well. Did Latin American cannabis originate in Mexico, and then travel South, or was it the other way around? We’ll probably never know! What we do know is that cannabis indigenous to these regions have common traits that in general include: Sativa phenotype Tall plants Elongated buds with a high calyx-to-leaf ratio Leaves with narrow leaflets (classic Sativa leaves) Long flowering period Cone shaped Abundant lateral branching Long internodes Long central stem The Strains As mentioned above, some landrace cannabis strains of Latin America include Chiapan, Guerreran, Nayarit, Michoacan, Oaxacan, and Sinoalan, Colombian Gold, Cali Hills, Punto Rojo, Santa Marta Gold, and Panama Red. Let’s check out some strains famous during the 60’s and 70’s, including Acapulco Gold, Colombian Gold, and Panama Red … all classic, old school strains. Acapulco Gold – Originating in the Guerrero Mountains of Southwest Mexico, this landrace cannabis strain was named for its nearest city, Acapulco. At from 20% to 24% THC, this potent Sativa has a distinctive brownish gold color and was one of the most sought-after cannabis strains of the 60s, with smuggling via the Tijuana border worth considering for some, despite the risks. Terpenes found in Acapulco Gold include Caryophyllene (Pepper), Limonene (Lemon), Myrcene (Musk, mango), Pinene (Pine), and Terpinolene (Wood). Colombian Gold – Many believe Colombian Gold to have gained its mind-blowing potency as a result of adaptation to the harsh environment in which this landrace cannabis strain originates. The very isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountains, home of the famous Colombian Gold, is one of the world’s highest coastal ranges (reaching altitudes of over 18,000 feet just 26 miles from the Caribbean coast) and has a unique tropical mountain climate. Here, temperatures can range daily from freezing to hot. As a result, this Colombian Sativa is shorter than many other landrace Sativa strains. Like many other landrace strains entering cannabis breeding programs during the 1960s and 1970s, Colombian Gold seeds were smuggled into the U.S. by counterculture cannabis revolutionaries. This strain became instantly popular for its high THC levels (at from 15% to 20% THC) and skunky, pungent aroma. Colombian Gold buds contain terpenes such as Caryophyllene (Pepper), Humulene (Hops), and Myrcene (Musk, mango). Panama Red – This Sativa landrace cannabis strain is named in part for its fiery red pistils, the “hairs”, that cover its dark green buds. Providing a mellow, yet energetic high, Panama Red became popular in the late 1960s during the hippy psychedelic era. This strain was popular for several decades, but eventually fell out of favor because of its long flowering time (at from 11 to 12 weeks) and its relatively low THC levels (at from 10% to 16% THC). With a pungent and earthy base aroma, Panama Red contains terpenes such as Caryophyllene (Pepper), Humulene (Hops), Pinene (Pine), Terpinolene (Wood).
The rugged, pure-indica landrace strains of Afghanistan are believed to be the first cannabis to be consumed by mankind. Exactly when and by whom are still something of a mystery and the subject of a contentious debate.
Recent archaeological evidence suggests that Proto-Indo-Europeans were most likely the first peoples to use cannabis for both medicinal and ritualistic purposes as far back as 30,000 years ago. This controversial theory predates ancient Chinese emperor Shen Nung and turns the idea that cannabis migrated from East to West on its head. Furthermore, evidence of carbonised cannabis seeds has been discovered in Romania that date back to the time of the Kurgans some 5,000 years ago.
Think that’s a little far out? The possibility that sativa strains were introduced from parts unknown and through climatic and environmental adaptation evolved into indica strains is another credible hypothesis. There are so many possibilities. Too many “unknown knowns” to factor.
Somehow, some way, Kush found a home. For at least the past couple thousand years, it has been the Hindu Kush mountain border region between modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan. These short, fast-flowering, and dark green bushes with oversized, fat-fingered leaves and swollen, resin-dripping buds are still the source of sticky green for the bulk of world’s hashish production - rivalled only by Morocco.
Afghanistan is a fascinating country. It is incredibly diverse both in terms of climate and ethnicity. With 7 main ethnic groups and many other small ones, Afghanistan is more a patchwork of peoples and languages than a nation. Hence the extreme political instability. This wide array of climates along with these different ethnic groups account for the many Afghan landraces. On top of that, cannabis may have first appeared somewhere around central Asia. Over the millennia, the cannabis plant has had the time to adapt to very specific growing conditions. It has also adapted to the different farming practices and preferences of the many ethnicities. Different Types Of Plants The Afghan landraces are very special because a cultivar growing in one village may be completely different from the variety cultivated in a neighboring valley. Therefore there isn’t one but many Afghan landraces just like there are many Indian Landraces. In some areas, cannabis grows wild whereas in other places, it is cultivated. Feral plants tend to be spindlier and grow narrower leaflets than farmed varieties. Likewise, theirs seeds are generally much smaller. The array of effects, smells and flavors of the Afghan Landraces is remarkable. All the more so because all these varieties come from a relatively small geographical area. The cultivars growing in the northern plains are very different than the ones from the Hindu Kush Mountains less than 100 miles away! In the plains of northern Afghanistan, the winter comes later and isn’t as harsh as it is further south up in the Hindu Kush mountains. This explains why the cultivars from the Kush flower faster (Usually in only 8 to 9 weeks) that the plants from the northern lowlands which require 9 to 11 weeks on average. The various wars and constant political turmoil seem to have kept most foreigners out of Afghanistan. This, along with the remoteness of the country seem to explain why most Afghan landraces are well preserved. Even-though it is very risky to travel to Afghanistan, the many Afghan landrace are still very much alive today.
Landrace Cannabis Strains Of Africa The equator runs directly through Sub-Saharan African giving it an ideal climate for cannabis to thrive. When looking at African landrace strains from a top level, we see uniform characteristics including medium height, elongated shape, sturdy central stems, and potent, widely-spaced buds. Known for their truly medicinal benefits, African landrace strains are sought for their energetic and uplifting high and are primarily Sativas. In fact, African landrace cannabis strains contain the highest level of THCV cannabinoid of any other landrace strains. Currently researched for use in diseases such as Parkinsons, this cannabinoid produces appetite suppression rather than appetite stimulation. Landrace strains native to Africa include but are not limited to Swazi Gold, Kilimanjaro, Durban Poison, Malawi, Ethiopian, Kwazulu, Zamal, and Angola Gold. Although technically part of Africa, the northern African landrace strains more closely resemble their Middle Eastern cousins, with strains tending to resinous Indicas rather than the famous Sativas of South Africa. Note that I did not mention Rooibaard, also known as “Swazi Redbeard.” This is because most agree this landrace strain is long gone, with only remnants seen in distant relatives. Also not included is Red Congolese, or Congolese, which is of debatable African genetics, with some arguing that the genetics of this strain are in fact Afghani and Mexican landraces and not African landrace strains at all. There are many amazing African landrace strains growers seek to add to their seed banks, genetic libraries, and breeding operations. See below for more information on some of these individual landrace strains. Durban Poison – Durban Poison is a South African landrace cannabis strain from the port city of Durban dating to the 14th-century, when it was cultivated by Khoikhol, San, and Bantu indigenous tribes. This amazing pure-Sativa was smuggled from South Africa to the United States in the 1970s by famous marijuana activist Ed Rosenthal, who had been on a mission to find new genetics. With a sweet, fruity flavor, and producing a stimulating, uplifting, and creativity-boosting high, Durban Poison is known for potency combined with clarity as a result of high THC levels, low CBD levels, and a robust cannabinoid and terpene profile – CBG (0.6 – 1.4%), THCV (0.2% – 1.8%), Myrcene (up to 0.5%), and D-Limonene (up to 1.2%). Kilimanjaro – This early-flowering African Sativa is a landrace cannabis strain from the Kenyan slopes of Kilimanjaro, cultivated originally for use in hunting, religious practices, and ceremonies. Referred to by natives as “elephant stomper” for its hyper and energizing effects, this plant grows vigorously and with many branches. Buds are resinous, have a lemon and fruity aroma, and contain a high THC level at around 18% that provides an intense and sometimes overwhelming psychedelic, cerebral high. Malawi – The Malawi landrace strain, often referred to as “Malawi Gold,” is a pure Sativa from the Salima region of Malawi. Similar to Thai landrace cannabis strains, these slender plants have a long flowering time and sturdy central stem. Malawi landrace cannabis strains tend to medium in size and have dark green leaves with thin, serrated leaflets. Meanwhile, Malawi Gold is know for its sweet, resinous, highly psychoactive and enormous buds, some of which reach two feet in length. These buds are composed of elongated calyxes with few leaves and wide node spacing. Moroccan – Moroccan landrace cannabis strains come from North Africa’s Rif Mountains, a region in northeast Morocco and in the plateau adjacent to the city of Ketama. There, cannabis growing dates back to the 15th century. These cannabis plants produce resinous buds used primarily for hash and grow similarly to Hindu Kush landrace cannabis, with little branching, strong central colas and relatively short plants at one to two meters. Swazi Gold – Primarily grown by the Nguni, and known for bountiful yields of dense, mango-smelling buds marked by an elongated, stick-like shape, Swazi Gold is a pure Sativa landrace cannabis strain from Swaziland, which borders South Africa and Mozambique. Swazi Gold forms a solid trunk with a large central cola and many secondary branches covered in wispy Sativa leaves. Known for its resilience and ability to grow in all weather conditions, Swazi Gold produces potent mental effects due to its high THC level (at from 18% to 27%) and is a favorite for medical conditions such as attention deficit disorders, stress, and depression.
Landrace Cannabis Strains Of Asia “Asia” as a region covers a huge area and several genetically important strains. When looking at Asian landrace strains from a top level, we see uniform characteristics including aromatic flowers with high resin production, very tall plants, and primarily Sativa genetics. Landrace strains native to Central and Southeast Asia include but are not limited to Aceh, Altai (South-Central Russia/Mongolia), Cambodian, Luang Prabang, Nepalese and Thai. See below for more information on these individual landrace strains. Aceh – Aceh is a pure Sativa landrace that shares a name with the region of Indonesia from which it originates. Also known as “Atjeh,” this old strain of cannabis typically grows tall and thin and has distinct flavors of earth, lemon, and mango. Aceh flowers are aromatic, and buds are small and minty green, with orange hairs and a dusting of white trichomes. As you’d expect from an Indonesian landrace, this flower prefers tropical climates and relatively steady temperatures. Considered the finest among Indonesia’s landrace varieties, the high of Aceh is creative, happy, and euphoric, and is surprisingly powerful given the generally low 10% THC level. In medical circles, Aceh is popular in the treatment of nausea, stress, anxiety and depression. Altai – Altai is a federal subject of Russia in the Siberian Federal District. The Altay Mountains are a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. Coordinates: 52°30′N, 83°00′E. Altai Krai has rolling foothills, grasslands, lakes, rivers, and mountains. The climate is severe with long cold dry winters and hot, usually dry summers. Here is a thread showing pics of this pure Sativa landrace strain from Russia: https://www.icmag.com/ic/showthread.php?t=83312 Cambodian – Native to the country’s mountainous Southwestern regions, the landrace cannabis strains of Cambodia grow to be tall with long, thin leaves that spiral loosely outward from the central stems. They are potent, pure Sativas known for high THC levels, with rare instances found at up to 30% THC, giving the flowers a whitish sheen when seen from a distance. Flowers normally smell floral and skunky. Expect a great sativa experience: euphoria, boosts in energy, motivation and inspiration, increase in focus, blissful feelings, and a mood often meant to socialize. Luang Prabang – Luang Prabang, also known as “Lao Sativa”, is a pure Sativa landrace strain originating in northern Laos. This strain is a tall, thin Sativa with medium-length internodes, a pale color, long flowering period, and medium yield. As a pure Sativa of southeast Asia, Luang Prabang shares features with the Thai landrace strains, including aroma, high, and growth characteristics. However, unlike Thai varieties, Laos landrace cannabis has been preserved from external influences, conserving the genetics and authenticity of indigenous varieties. Luang Prabang may taste fruity, spicy, earthy, sour, or piney. When smoked, this strain creates a feeling of euphoria and calm. Nepalese – “Nepalese” doesn’t refer to one landrace strain, rather the Nepalese landraces are a collection of several Sativa strains and phenotypes from the area. As landrace strains, the characteristics of indigenous Nepali cannabis are found to be uniform and in general include tall, thin plants with elongated, psychoactive flowers of fresh aroma and high resin production. THC content for these flowers ranges at from 14% to 17%, with a complementary CBD level at around 1% and terpene profile found to contain Myrcene, Linalool, and Carene. Nepalese landrace strains have large, fluffy, popcorn-shaped, dark-green nugs with amber hairs and a fine layer of clear trichomes in sticky resin. Known to have powerful cerebral effects, Nepalese is recommended for treating chronic stress and pain, depression, and even fatigue. Thai – Thai landrace strains are pure Sativas with historic importance as the cannabis of choice for breeders seeking to add potent and unique genetics to their programs. Indigenous Thai cannabis strains are found to be uniform and, in general, characteristics include: tall plants with many branches and leaves with long, 9 to 11 inch serrated leaflets, susceptibility to hermaphroditism, sweet, aromatic flowers with elongated calyxes, low CBD levels, and high production levels of resinous, psychoactive THC (14% to 24% THC), and a terpene profile that includes Caryophyllene – “Pepper”, Humulene – “Hops”, Pinene – “Pine” and Terpinolene – “Wood”. As a pure Sativas, Thai landrace cannabis strains produce highs that are stimulating, head-centered, energizing and euphoric. For medicinal uses, patients prefer Thai strains for depression, stress, and headaches. One famous Thai landrace cannabis strain was called “Chocolate Thai”, which first made an appearance in the U.S. sometime in the 1960s as “Thai sticks,” spindly flowers tied to a bamboo stick that were renowned for their potent high. These buds were slender and airy, medium-to-dark brown in color, and possessed both a unique chocolate-coffee aroma and a distinct chocolate flavor. Thanks to the combination of its flavor, coffee-colored buds, and a cerebral high, the strain was very popular until the 1980s. Eventually, the strain’s popularity began to fade due to its lower THC level and difficulty to grow, with 10% THC as a high-rated sample and seeds not only being difficult to germinate, but also tending to die easily or become hermaphroditic. Because of these difficulties, some claim that true Chocolate Thai genetics went extinct in the mid-to-late 1980s. Chocolate Thai’s special effect is its burst of creativity and focus, and the high is amazing for anyone in need of inspiration.
What is heirloom cannabis? Heirloom cannabis strains are landrace strains, pure in their original genetics, that have been cultivated with guidance from humans for at least 50 to 100 years outside of the landrace’s native environment. Landrace strains, to recap, develop for many hundreds of years without any aid from humans, establishing a perfect harmony with their natural geography. When seeds from landrace strains are cultivated outside the zone in which they evolved, they produce what geneticists and breeders call “phenotypes”. Phenotypes are transmogrifications of the plant that result in similar, but different characteristics. These differences can be seen in an heirloom cannabis plant’s morphology, development, and biochemical properties, and may result in variations in flowering times, potency, cannabinoid profiles, and even medical uses from the original landrace strain. Where do heirloom cannabis strains come from? Many heirloom weed strains were developed in Hawaii and California. As it turned out, the tropical climate and fertile soil of Hawaii was ideal for growing strains originating from areas such as Thailand and India, while Northern California, with its slightly cooler climate, provided the perfect conditions for strains originating from the high altitudes of the Hindu Kush mountain range. However, were we to consider records that suggest cannabis is only native to central Asia, then all BUT the landrace strains of this region would be considered heirloom strains. This would include strains commonly referred to as landrace in regions such as Africa, Latin America, and South Asia. Angola Red, for example, is technically a Latin American heirloom developed from a strain found in Africa even though many consider Angola Red to be Latin American landrace cannabis. Were one to read up on Angola Red, it might be seen that the African strain in Angola Red’s lineage is often referred to as landrace, although it would technically also be heirloom. Some strains known to the Hawaiian islands for many years are also technically heirloom, although these local strains have developed their own Hawaiian flavor and potency. Examples of these strains include Hawaiian Duckfoot, Puna Buddaz, and Moloka’i Purpz. Another case of confusion can be seen in Jamaican “landraces” such as Lamb’s Bread, which are technically heirloom, but have such unique morphology that many consider these plants as native to Jamaica. To review from our previous articles in this series, were we to consider only central Asian cannabis as landrace, these strains would technically be heirloom and not landrace: Cambodian Thai Malawi Durban Poison Swazi Gold Acapulco Gold Colombian Gold Panama Red Certainly, there is some confusion in identifying cannabis strains. What are your thoughts? Should plants of Africa, Asia, Jamaica, and Latin America be considered landrace, or heirloom? Have they developed and adapted for a long enough time away from their parents to be called landrace, or does the fact that human cultivation is involved prevent this possibility, forever categorizing these strains as heirloom? This is a debate that has raged for decades.
For centuries, what we call cannabis today was known as hemp in the English-speaking world. The hemp of olden days was used by our ancestors as a source of food (its seeds), and the fibers of its stalks were used for creating materials, mainly rope and clothing. More familiarly, hemp flower was also smoked and consumed as a medicine and in spiritual ceremonies, but it was much less potent than today’s weed, with THC levels we modern humans would laugh at. Ancient texts largely refer to this incredibly useful plant as hemp, and the distinction between hemp and cannabis didn’t come about until the 20th century. Today, we divide this one plant into two categories according to its use: When it’s consumed for medicinal, spiritual, or recreational purposes it’s known as cannabis; when it’s used for food (seeds, oil, milk, etc.) or materials (clothing, rope, etc.), it’s called hemp. But they are the same plant. Hemp has evolved into a legal term, defined in the US simply as cannabis plants with less than 0.3% THC. This negligible amount of THC means you can’t get high from smoking it, but people can grow it for food and materials. In the United States, the federal prohibition against growing hemp ended when Congress passed the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (also known as the 2018 Farm Bill). However, in the past few years the line between hemp and cannabis has blurred. Hemp plants are now used as source material to extract CBD and novel cannabinoids such as delta-8 and THC-O. Consuming these products can get you high like good ol’ weed (albeit, less high, in many cases), but as the products are extracted from plants with less than 0.3% THC—that is, hemp—the products can avoid the federal prohibition against cannabis. They are considered legal at the federal level.
Disclaimer: Germination of cannabis seeds is illegal in most countries. Beans-2-Greens Genetics and Flor Medica LLC sells all seeds strictly for souvenir purposes only or for storage in case the laws change and for the preservation of cannabis seeds for future generations.
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